The international standard IEC 60884-1 defines the general requirements for plugs and sockets intended for household and similar purposes, IEC 60884-1 does not define specific plug and socket types, which are the subject of national standards in each country. From shop OldstuffUA. In response to a suggestion that the European Commission introduce a common system across the whole of the European Union, the Commission's Regulatory Fitness and Performance (REFIT) programme issued a report in 2017. Baekeland's innovative step was to put his "last condensation product" into an egg-shaped "Bakelizer". Choose Options. Click & Collect. [40] Designer Coco Chanel included Bakelite bracelets in her costume jewelry collections. Other earthed sockets that are widely used in the U.S. today are operable with unearthed plugs. 1363 . An early American electrical plug and socket was invented by Harvey Hubbell and patented in 1904. Hubbell's catalogue of 1906 includes various three-way adaptors similar to those shown in the US 776,326 patent, but modified for use with the coplanar flat pin plugs. Hubbell had introduced its own parallel flat pin configuration in 1912. The plugs and sockets used in countries such as Argentina, Australia and China are based on this type and are physically compatible. Incidentally, a NEMA 5‐20, NEMA 6-15, or NEMA 6‐20 plug with a missing earth pin would fit this socket. [citation needed], Harvey Hubbell had patented the parallel blade plug in 1913, and patented a polarized version in 1916. IEC 60884-1 para 6.1 defines the preferred voltage ratings for single phase plugs and sockets as 130 V or 250 V. The foreword of IEC 60884-1 states: in order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. A patent for this obsolete American plug and socket was filed in 1915 under US patent 1,179,728. Some older industrial buildings in Spain used sockets that took a plug rated for higher current and had two flat contacts and a round earth pin, somewhat similar in design to the ones found on American plugs but larger in size. Such an unusual connection is intended specifically to make the connection of standard higher-voltage equipment impossible. ; cement, using in sealing electric light bulbs in metal bases; varnishes, for impregnating electric coils, etc. Bakelite was the major form of “art plastic” from the 1930s through to the 1950s. Alibaba.com offers 2,698 bakelite plugs products. Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. The configuration of the socket was not operable with existing two-contact unearthed plugs. Shipping weight: 3 oz. Hubbell evidently soon found the round pin design unsatisfactory as a subsequent patent US 774,251[7] filed on May 27, 1904 shows lampholder adaptors similar to those of his first patent for use with plugs having coplanar (tandem) flat pins. [21], Bakelite's molding process had a number of advantages. Separable plugs had been available for more than a decade prior to Hubbell's 1904 design. [1] However, in Britain, there were recognisable two pin plugs and wall sockets appearing on the market as early as 1885. [4], Baekeland then began experimenting on strengthening wood by impregnating it with a synthetic resin, rather than coating it. 5 out of 5 stars (9) 9 reviews. [54] It was also used for patriotic wartime jewelry. 0 bids. All three pins are 19 mm (0.748 in) long, and the earth pin is a cylinder of 4.8 mm (0.189 in) diameter. For much of human history, everyday tools and products were made mostly from animal skins, bone, ivory, wood, metals, plant fibers, animal hair, and the like. This variety includes clear material, for jewelry, smokers' articles, etc. £3.70. Used, Bulgin Bakelite Mains Plug and Socket . Related Products; Customers Also Viewed; Related Products. From a colour transparency in the Science Museum Photographic Archive. Condensites are similar thermoset materials having much the same properties, characteristics, and uses. The upper slots as seen in the illustration connect to silver-coloured wiring screws on the upper side, and the lower slots connect to brass-coloured wiring screws on the lower side. This would have been a desirable feature in the days before wall receptacles became widespread and, for many consumers, the only source of electricity was an electric light socket. [24] A modified version is used in Brazil, but IEC 60906-1 has been adopted only in South Africa (in 1993) becoming the "preferred configuration for new installations" in 2013. Singer Sewing . $19.95. The International Electrotechnical Commission in 1934 established technical committee TC 23 for electrical fittings. (262 Fed.Rep. Before the 1970s, several types of proprietary plugs and sockets were commonly used in Britain, alongside types which conformed to national standards. [7]:107 By the 1930s, Bakelite was used for game pieces like chessmen, poker chips,[45] dominoes[46] and mahjong sets. By 1930, designer Paul T. Frankl considered Bakelite a "Materia Nova", "expressive of our own age". 6pcs. This receptacle type has been unavailable in retail shops since the 1960s but still available from the manufacturer Leviton (model 5000-I) for replacement only and not for new installations. [4] By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol and formaldehyde, Baekeland produced a hard moldable material that he named "Bakelite," after himself. Born in Ghent, Belgium, in 1863, Baekeland immigrated to the United States in 1889. [7]:58–59[14] A filing for a trademark featuring the letter B above the mathematical symbol for infinity was made August 25, 1925, and claimed the mark was in use as of December 1, 1924. Several early American electrical plug and socket arrangements were invented by Harvey Hubbell. Bulgin Bakelite Mains Plug and , good quality, in the box - only been used once! Once Baekeland's heat and pressure patents expired in 1927, Bakelite Corporation faced serious competition from other companies. Bijker gives a detailed discussion of the development of Bakelite and the Bakelite company's production of various applications of materials. In 1939, the companies were acquired by Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation. Beginning in the 1920s, it became a popular material for jewelry. £4.00 postage. During the first fifty years of commercial use of electric power, standards developed rapidly based on growing experience. In Britain they used "wood filler" as the "filler" for Bakelite, only because after extensive testing they believed "wood filler" produced far more resilient Bakelite telephone cases. 1-1/4" Diameter; 3/8" Centerhole; View All Close. The 1906 catalogue says of the Chapman adaptor: "The device avoids fastening the cords together as is necessary with the ordinary Chapman plug when used for more than one purpose." Some countries have multiple voltages, frequencies and plug designs in use, which can create inconvenience and safety hazards. The earliest presented to the court was the "Weston", (US patent 480,900 issued August 16, 1892, for which Hubbell had taken out a licence), another (unidentified) type following in 1897. Shop with confidence. [57][58], During World War II, Bakelite buttons were part of the British uniforms. Bakelite was also very commonly used in making molded grip panels (stocks) on handguns, submachine guns and machineguns, as well as numerous knife handles and "scales" through the first half of the 20th century.[39]. [11] As of 1911, the company's main focus was laminating varnish, whose sales volume vastly outperformed both molding material and cast resin. Another obsolete socket, made by Bryant, 125 V 15 A and 250 V 10 A rating. english bakelite plug thick rectangular pins. His first major invention was Velox, a photographic printing paper that could be developed under artificial light. The report of the court proceedings[12] includes a comprehensive review of the development of the art in the US prior to 1919, based on evidence presented to the Court. It is sometimes claimed (e.g., in Illumin[16]) that the modern American version of the earthed plug, was invented by Philip F. Labre who was issued a U.S. patent for an earthed socket and plug in 1928. Lot of two large old early industrial vintage bakelite sockets for audio jack style plugs. Baekeland produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde shellac called "Novolak", but it was not a market success. Hubbell's parallel pin configuration was preferred, but Hubbell rebelled against standardization, and refused to agree, asserting that it had common law rights in the dimensions of its line. This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 11:38. £3.50 postage. Other manufacturers adopted the Hubbell pattern, and by 1915 they were widespread.[9][11]. Shipping and handling. [7][29] By 1912, it was being used to make billiard balls, since its elasticity and the sound it made were similar to ivory. "Bakelite is manufactured in several forms to suit varying requirements. Gradually wall sockets were developed to supplement those that screwed into lampholders.[9][10][11]. Check out our bakelite plug in selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops. no. Called "Tripoliki" (τριπολική, meaning "three-pole"), the standard had 3 round pins, similar to the post-1989 Israeli SI 32 and Thai TIS 166-2549 types. IEC 60906-1 was originally published in 1986 as a common standard for plugs and sockets in countries using 230 V that could be accepted by many countries as their national standard, now or in the near future. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.[22]. [7]:44–45, The earliest commercial use of Bakelite in the electrical industry was the molding of tiny insulating bushings, made in 1908 for the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation by Richard W. Seabury of the Boonton Rubber Company. After the two-prong electric plug was introduced in the 1920s, the three-pin outlet was developed. Preparation of Bakelite. Click & Collect. Good mechanical and impact strength with continuous operating temperature of 250 °F (120 °C). Favourite Add to 2 pcs. They are both marked on the socket face with "... lot vintage brass Hubbell sockets w/pull chains replacement lamp part. Plugs per se with parallel flat pins, such as the "Fort Wayne" design were in common use by 1886, and flush receptacles, such as the "Bryant Electrical Company" design, by 1902. Right: T-slot duplex socket. Equally collectable today is the Bakelite radio: Philco model 444 broadcast receiver (moulded Bakelite cabinet; less back), c. 1936. 0 bids. [38] Phenolics are less frequently used in general consumer products today due to their cost and complexity of production and their brittle nature. In 1953 the CEE published Technical Report 83 (later 60083), which was a listing of plugs and sockets then in use. [Harvey Hubbell Inc. V. General Electric Co. et.al. Note: See the NEMA 1-15 ungrounded (Type A) section of this page for the parallel blade patent reference numbers. The earliest commercial use of Bakelite in the electrical industry was the molding of tiny insulating bushings, made in 1908 for the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation by Richard W. Seabury of the Boonton Rubber Company. Although Bakelite was the trade name of the first thermosetting phenolic resin, it was not the only one. [8] Baekeland also filed for patent protection in other countries, including Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, Russia, and Spain. It was patented by Belgian born Leo Hendrik Baekeland in New York, in 1907, and was the first truly synthetic and thermosetting plastic. [47][48] Kitchenware made with Bakelite, including canisters and tableware, was promoted for its resistance to heat and to chipping. It can be molded very quickly, decreasing production time. [citation needed]. The plugs and sockets used in countries such as Argentina, Australia and China are based on this type and are physically compatible. This creates a liquid condensation product, referred to as Bakelite A, which is soluble in alcohol, acetone, or additional phenol. [11]:172–174, The Bakelite Corporation was formed in 1922 after patent litigation favorable to Baekeland, from a merger of three companies: Baekeland's General Bakelite Company; the Condensite Company, founded by J.W. MI9 was forced to adapt to meet the challenge of a number of different compass solutions were devised, both covert and overt. [51][52] By 1935, it was used in solid-body electric guitars. Please ask for an adjusted invoice before paying. [34][35], Bakelite's availability and ease and speed of molding helped to lower the costs and increase product availability so that telephones and radios became common household consumer goods. In recent years the "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible. The two flat contacts are spaced further apart than on an American plug. Gustav Binswanger, a German immigrant who founded the (British) General Electric Company Ltd, obtained a patent (GB189516898) in 1895 for a plug and socket using a concentric (co-axial) contact system. Singer Sewing Machine Power Cord Original Bakelite Plug 66 99 201 15-91 . This is a very rare Bulgin Bakelite Mains Plug please see photos for more information and conditions of each one. Aylesworth; and the Redmanol Chemical Products Company, founded by Lawrence V. It has been adopted by 38 countries outside North America[vague], and is standardized in … It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. Plug Bases; Mounting Blocks; Junction Boxes; Wall Brackets and Boxes; Cable Connectors; Smoke Alarms; Insulation Tape; Heat Shrink; Fire Rated Products; Lamp Accessories; Links & Service Fuses. In the former Soviet Union this socket was and still is commonly used for wiring in places where the voltage is lowered for safety purposes, like in schools, filling stations or in wet areas, and is rated 42 V at 10 A AC. In Britain, a 1911 book[13] dealing with the electrical products of A. P. Lundberg & Sons of London describes the "Tripin" earthed plug available in 2.5 amp and 5 amp models. [7], Baekeland filed a substantial number of patents in the area. In England, Bakelite Limited, a merger of three British phenol formaldehyde resin suppliers (Damard Lacquer Company Limited of Birmingham, Mouldensite Limited of Darley Dale and Redmanol Chemical Products Company of London), was formed in 1926. $3.95 Current Stock: ... Bakelite style material (this is not true "bakelite" material, but a replica) Nice embossed Design; Very easy to work with. Only two meetings were held before the outbreak of the Second World War. The pin configuration of the "Tripin" appears virtually identical to modern BS 546 plugs. Artisans may use bakelite to create different pieces of jewelry. The resulting substance is extremely hard and both infusible and insoluble. On 26 February 1903 he filed two patent applications featuring 2-pin plugs and adaptors for using his plugs with existing designs of lamp sockets and wall receptacles. [7]:44–45[22][25], Phenolic resin products may swell slightly under conditions of extreme humidity or perpetual dampness. £3.10 postage. By heating it under pressure, at about 150 °C (300 °F), Baekeland was able to suppress the foaming that would otherwise occur. The court observed that Hubbell's plugs were readily distinguishable from those of other makes by the provision of "nicks" in the pins of Hubbell's plug pins, designed to provide retention when mated with Hubbell's receptacles, so there was no confusion as to their origin. The molding material is prepared ordinarily by the impregnation of cellulose substances with the initial 'uncured' resin. [38], Phenolic resins have been commonly used in ablative heat shields. [15], The first issue of Plastics magazine, October 1925, featured Bakelite on its cover, and included the article "Bakelite – What It Is" by Allan Brown. It is therefore recommended that any country in need of a new or replacement system for the nominal voltage range 100 V to 130 V a.c. adopt this standard as its only national standard.[26]. [18] As the need for safer installations became apparent, earthed three-contact systems were made mandatory in most industrial countries. In 1912 Hubbell rotated his tandem pins by 90 degrees to arrive at the parallel flat pin configuration still widely used today (NEMA 1-15). £3.10 postage. Vintage Bakelite 13 Amp Plug. A wide variety of uses were listed in their trademark applications. The parallel and tandem socket accepts normal parallel NEMA 1‐15 plugs and also tandem NEMA 2‐15 plugs. He also made overseas connections to produce materials in other countries.[4]. Many older North American sockets have two different current and voltage ratings, most commonly 10 A 250 V/15 A 125 V. This has to do with a peculiarity of the National Electrical Code from 1923 to the 1950s. The earliest American patent application for an earthed plug appears to be 11 January 1915 by George P. Knapp, on behalf of the Harvey Hubbell company. [9] He announced his invention at a meeting of the American Chemical Society on February 5, 1909. 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